Present Simple Tense

Present Tense

Present Simple Tense in English Grammar:

The Present Simple is also called Present Indefinite or Simple Present Tense. It generally describes present routine events, facts, truths etc., 

Present Simple Tense Structure and Formula: (Rules)

Present Tense

 

The following sentences are also considered Present Simple: (with the use of do, does, can, may, must, have to, has to)

Examples: 

  • They do Yoga.
  • He does Karate.
  • I can sing a song.
  • He may not participate in the event.
  • You must go there.
  • He has to obey the orders.
  • You have to attend class.

Signal Words:

It is essentialt to focus on signal words because they help us identify the correct tense in a sentence. The signal words for the Present Simple Tense are:

 

every morning/evening/day/week/month/year/summer/winter…,

in the mornings/ evenings/summer/winter….,

on Sundays/Mondays.., 

every Sunday/Monday….,

once in a week/month/year……, 

always, normally, frequently, regularly, irregularly, rarely, usually, occasionally, daily, seldom, never, often, sometimes…,

 

Usage of the Present Simple Tense:

It is used:

To express Habitual Actions/Routine Activities.

Examples: 

  • He usually goes to college by bus.
  • He sometimes sits in the front row.
  • Mary goes to church every Sunday.
  • She always wears black sarees.
  • The boys play in the evenings.
  • My father reads two newspapers daily. 

To express Universal Truths and Scientific facts.

Examples: 

  • The Sun rises in the East.    
  • The Earth moves around the sun.
  • Stars shine brightly.                                                                          
  • Ice is cold.
  • Water freezes at 0 degrees Centigrade.

To express Quotations and Proverbs.

Examples: 

  • Necessity is the mother of invention.                                                                     
  • All that glitters is not gold. 
  • Practice makes a man perfect.
  • A friend in need is a friend indeed.

To express Future Events when they are scheduled (especially official programmes).

Examples: 

  • The Prime Minister visits Warangal next month.
  • The train arrives in ten minutes.
  • The school reopens on Monday.
  • They leave for Madras next week.

To express Past Events in narration for vivid description.

Examples: 

  • Hamlet meets his father’s ghost and learns the truth about his uncle. 
  • They go to the station and buy the tickets.
  • Sita asks her sons not to misunderstand Rama. She further says that time reveals everything. 

To express Likes, Dislikes and Professional Activities.

Examples: 

  • I like to play chess.
  • She doesn’t like playing games.
  • He works in a bank.

In Sports Commentaries like cricket.

Examples: 

  • Dhoni jumps out and hits over the point for a huge six.
  • Jadeja cuts the ball to the deep point fielder and takes a single.
  • Dhoni plays the ball on the offside and takes a single.

In Newspaper Headlines.

Examples: 

  • The Prime Minister of India welcomes the US President.
  • PM Modi launches Rs. 20,050 crore scheme for the fisheries sector.

In Imperative Sentences.

Examples: 

  • Close the window, please.
  • Submit your photograph immediately.
  • Improve your handwriting.           

In Type – I Probable Conditional Clause.

Examples: 

  • If you play well you will win the match.
  • If she asks me I can help her.           

In Exclamatory Sentences beginning with there and here.

Examples: 

  • Here comes the bus!
  • There he goes!

Also, learn the following related to Present Simple:

 

‘Be’ forms (am, is, are) can be used as main verbs as well as auxiliary verbs. In the Present Simple Tense, we use them as main verbs.

Examples: 

  • I am a teacher.
  • She is not a doctor. 
  • Are we eligible?
  • Aren’t they sportsmen?

Let’s see it in a more detailed manner.

‘Be’ forms: as main verbs in Present Simple Tense (Am, Is, Are)
Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Negative Interrogative 
I am I’m I am not Am I? Am I not Aren’t I?Ain’t I?
We are We’re We are not We aren’t Are we? Are we not? Aren’t we?
You are You’re You are not You aren’t Are you? Are you not? Aren’t you?
He is He’s He is not He isn’t Is he? Is he not? Isn’t he?
She is She’s She is not She isn’t Is she? Is she not? Isn’t she?
It is It’s It is not It isn’t Is it? Is it not? Isn’t it?
They are They’re They are not They aren’t Are they? Are they not? Aren’t they?

 

‘Have’ forms (have, has) can be used as main verbs as well as auxiliary verbs.  In the Present Simple Tense, we use them as main verbs.

Examples: 

  • I have a car.
  • She has no Scooty. (She hasn’t any bike) 
  • Have they proper uniforms? (Do they have proper uniforms?)
  • Haven’t we a complete time-table? (Don’t we have a complete time-table?)

 

Let’s see it in a more detailed manner.

‘Have’ forms: as main verbs in Present Simple Tense. (Have, Has)
Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence Interrogative Sentence Negative Interrogative 
I have I’ve I have no

I’ve no

I haven’t any Have I?

Do I have?

Have I not Haven’t I?

Don’t I have?

We have We’ve We have no

We’ve no

We haven’t any Have we?

Do we have?

Have we not Haven’t we?

Don’t we have?

You have You’ve You have no

You’ve no

You haven’t any Have you?

Do you have?

Have you not Haven’t you?

Don’t you have?

He has He’s He has no

He’s no

He hasn’t any Has he?

Does he have?

Has he not Hasn’t he? Doesn’t he have?
She has She’s She has no

She’s no

She hasn’t any Has she?

Does she have?

Has she not Hasn’t she?

Doesn’t she have?

It has It’s It has no

It’s no

It hasn’t any Has it?

Does it have?

Has it not Hasn’t it?

Doesn’t it have?

They have They’ve They have no

They’ve no

They haven’t any Have they?

Do they have?

Have they not Haven’t they?

Don’t they have?

Contractions:

Contractions that are generally used in the Present Simple Tense with the forms of be, have and do. 

 

Regular Contraction
am + not aren’t (not amn’t)
is + not isn’t
are + not aren’t
have + not haven’t
has + not hasn’t
do + not don’t
does + not doesn’t
I + am, I + have I’m, I’ve
you + are, you + have you’re, you’ve
we + are, we + have we’re, we’ve
he + is, he + has he’s
she + is, she + has she’s
it + is, it + has it’s
they + are, they + have they’re, they’ve
can + not can’t
may + not mayn’t
must + not mustn’t

Spelling Rules:

We add –s or –es to the verb in third person singular number (or V5). -s is added in general, but -es is added in the following way.

 

We add –es to the verb that ends in ss

Examples:

kiss – kisses, dress – dresses, miss – misses, bless – blesses, guess – guesses

cross – crosses, Possess – possesses etc.,

We add –es to the verb that ends in –sh

Examples:

slash – slashes, flash – flashes, clash – classes, vanish – vanishes, punish – punishes

polish – polish,  flourish – flourishes,  accomplish – accomplishes etc.,

We add –es to the verb that ends in – ch

Examples:

catch – catches, clinch – clinches, clutch – clutches,  teach – teaches

watch – watches, match – matches etc.,

We add –es to the verb that ends in –

Examples:

relax – relaxes, box – boxes, suffix – suffixes, prefix – prefixes, perplex – perplexes, mix – mixes, xerox – xeroxes etc.,

We add –es to the verb that ends in – o

Examples:

do – does, go – goes solo – soloes, echo – echoes, forego – foregoes, veto – vetoes etc.,

If the verb ends in a consonant and –y we change –y into -i and add –es

Examples:

carry – carries, try – tries, certify – certifies, satisfy – satisfies, clarify – clarifies, classify – classifies  etc.,

But if the verb ends in a vowel before -y only -s.

Examples:

play – plays, misplay – misplays, outplay – outplays, overlay – overlays, destroy – destroys, betray – betrays etc.,

Introduction to the Tenses

Present Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense 

The Past Simple Tense 

Past Continuous Tense 

The Past Perfect Tense 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense 

The Future Simple Tense

Future Continuous Tense  

The Future Perfect Tense  

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

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