Verbs of Incomplete Predication:
The Verbs which require a word or phrase to make a complete meaning of the sentence are called the verbs of incomplete predication.
Here the verb refers to Linking Verb or Intransitive Verb which requires a Subjective Complement to make complete sense.
Some Intransitive verbs make complete sense of the sentence by themselves. They need only a subject.
- Birds fly.
- The moon shines.
- The sun rose.
- The boy laughed.
These Verbs are sometimes called complete verbs or verbs of complete predication.
But some other Intransitive Verbs (or Linking Verbs) require a word or phrase to make complete sense of the sentence.
Examples of these verbs are:
is, am, are, was, were, will/shall be, been, become, look, seem, appear, taste, smell, grow, turn etc.
- They are doctors.
- My friend has been a professor.
- The earth is round.
- Honey tastes sweet.
- He became a businessman.
- This cat grew fat.
- The teacher looks angry.
The Verbs in the above sentences, which required a word or phrase, are called the verbs of incomplete predication.
The word or phrase required to complete the predicate is called the complement of the verb.
When the complement of a verb describes the subject, it is called a subjective complement.
- Sarala is a dancer.
- My friend looks happy.
- She is a genius.
Here dancer, happy and genius are the subjective complements.
The subjective complement may be of two kinds – Predicative Noun and Predicative Adjective.
- Sarala is a dancer. (Predicative Noun)
- My friend looks happy. (Predicative Adjective)
What are Object Complements:
Some Transitive verbs require, besides their objects, complements to complete their meaning.
- The diet plan has made him healthy.
- The students elected Kishore their president.
- They named the baby Cherry.
- She called him a rascal.
Here the complements, healthy, their president, Cherry, rascal describe the objects him, Kishore, the baby, him.
A complement that describes the object is called an object complement.